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Mass vaccination against the COVID-19 vaccine officially began in the UK on December 8

Mass vaccination against the COVID-19 vaccine officially began in the UK on December 8. The FDA is also expected to approve the vaccine for emergency use in the United States this week. By mid-January, an estimated 24 million Americans will have been vaccinated. An optimistic forecast is that by Next May, about 70 per cent of the US population will be herd immune after vaccination, effectively bringing the outbreak under control.

It is clear that progress in vaccine development in western countries has been helped by the severity of the epidemic. As the country with the largest number of COVID-19 cases, the United States has seen a large number of cases every day, with more than 100,000 people infected every day since November. So far, the epidemic is still spreading rapidly in the United States and has not been effectively controlled. The number of cases and deaths in the United States is expected to peak around mid-January.

In this case, the United States and other Western countries can not only carry out large-scale phase III clinical trials in their own countries, but also the number of infected subjects can quickly meet the requirement of unblindness (the minimum requirement for interim data analysis is the cumulative number of infected subjects to reach 62). On November 9th Pfizer, an American drugs firm, and BioNTech, a German biotech firm, were the first to publish interim analysis showing that the vaccine was more than 90% effective (and 95% effective in the final trial). A week later, another American company, Moderna, announced similar results.

The story in China is quite different. Despite the severity of the early outbreak, China was one of the first countries to begin to restore social and economic order by rapidly controlling the spread of the virus. This development presents new challenges to China’s current approach to the epidemic, including vaccine development, production and distribution.

Although China’s vaccine development went smoothly in the first and second stages, it reached the third clinical stage and had to be done abroad because there were too few cases at home. However, among the countries with the highest number of cases, the United States and India cannot achieve effective cooperation due to the current state of relations with China. Brazil is the third worst affected country in the world, but the actual cooperation with Sinovac is only in Sao Paulo state, and the infighting between the state governor and the federal president has affected the normal development of bilateral cooperation. An important test country for the vaccine is the United Arab Emirates, but only more than 1,000 people are infected every day. These factors add to a number of variables, and it takes longer for the cumulative number of infected subjects to meet the minimum requirements for interim data analysis.

In fact, the overall need for a vaccine was not urgent until November, when there were few cases in China. Countries such as Britain and America not active prevention and cause of China’s so-called “immune” fall (as expected, the western countries by natural infection and immunity, while China because most people fail to come into contact with the virus and the lack of immunity, the herd immunity can therefore cause differences) between the two is not form. But if a vaccine is developed and delivered on a large scale in the West today, the Chinese vaccine gap could become a reality.

To avoid this, China will need a nationwide mass vaccination of COVID-19 vaccine in a relatively short period of time. According to estimates by National Health Commission officials, the annual production capacity of domestic COVID-19 vaccine could reach 610 million doses by the end of this year and more than 1 billion doses next year. At this scale of production, two doses per person would be needed, even if all were used for domestic vaccination. By the end of next year 805m people, or just 58 per cent of the population, would be vaccinated. Although China is also a member of COVAX, the global vaccine mechanism, COVAX provides only 1 per cent of the population, less than 60 per cent of the total. At this rate, even if China produces an inactivated or adenovirus vector vaccine that is 90 per cent effective (sinopac has just announced that its vaccine tested in the UAE is 86 per cent effective), it will not be able to achieve herd immunity in the country by the end of next year. Until this goal is achieved, current “high walls” against imported cases must be maintained. At the same time, maintaining the current policy of “dynamic zeroing” is not only costly, but also allows the population with natural immunity to remain very low, thus maintaining a single dependence on vaccine demand in the process of achieving herd immunity.

To solve these problems, China needs to accelerate the progress of clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines and ensure that the results are based on rigorous mid-term data analysis. Do not announce test results if the number of infected subjects does not reach a predetermined node. Second, for the successful development of domestic vaccines, we need to make various preparations and concentrate on rapidly expanding production capacity. It may also consider actively importing vaccines produced in western countries through existing cooperation channels with pharmaceutical companies. Some vaccines can also be licensed to be produced by domestic pharmaceutical companies. Third, the current policy of self-funded voluntary vaccination should be changed to include COVID-19 vaccine in category I vaccine management, which is provided free of charge by the state and compulsory for citizens. It is also important to note that priority must be given to addressing domestic demand for vaccines, which for most developing countries should be met more through technology transfer and assistance to improve vaccine production capacity.

It has been a year now since the world was under the shadow of a novel Coronavirus. A vaccine may not provide the final answer to the global crisis, but it could be a game-changer. In response to the latest changes in the situation, decision-making departments should adjust epidemic prevention strategies in a timely manner to make them more based on risk assessment. Meanwhile, they should actively coordinate travel restriction measures with the international community, realize the docking of standards, and build fast channels to facilitate the orderly flow of personnel and materials.

Beijing, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) — Du Juan Britain began a mass vaccination against the new coronavirus Wednesday, and some people have reported allergic reactions. People who have had a “significant” allergic reaction to a drug, food or vaccine should not get the vaccine, an official at Britain’s drug watchdog warned on Thursday.

Canada’s health regulator on Thursday approved the use of the novel coronavirus vaccine developed by German biotech company In partnership with Pfizer of the US, saying it would be concerned about allergy cases in the UK. A senior U.S. government official in charge of vaccines said U.S. regulators will take into account allergies in the U.K. when reviewing the vaccine.Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare Products Authority said Tuesday that there have been two cases of severe allergic reactions and one suspected allergic reaction since the mass vaccination of the novel coronavirus vaccine developed by a Us-German company. The agency then warned that anyone who has had a significant allergic reaction to a vaccine, drug or food should not get the vaccine.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include a swollen throat, difficulty breathing and swallowing, which is an overreaction of the body’s immune system and can be life-threatening.The Chief executive of the Medicines and Healthcare Products Authority, Joan Raine, said: “While most people will not experience an allergic reaction (from a vaccine), the benefit of vaccination from a novel Coronavirus outweighs the risk of vaccination… You can rest assured that this vaccine meets the medicines and Healthcare Products Administration’s standards for safety, quality and efficacy.”

Pfizer and Biotechnologies did not give the vaccine to people with a history of severe allergies when it was in the final phase of a clinical trial, Reuters reported. The companies said they would co-operate with the UK’s Medicines and Healthcare Products Authority’s investigation.Experts are divided over the advice on COVID-19 vaccination issued by the MEDICINES and Healthcare Products Authority.Peter Openshaw, professor of experimental medicine at Imperial College, UK, agreed with the UK regulators. “The fact that we quickly became aware of these two cases of allergy and that precautionary advice has been issued is a sign that the surveillance system is working well,” he said.But Mitchell Grayson, director of allergy and immunology at The National Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, said the UK’s announcement could affect the public’s willingness to get vaccinated against the COVID-19 vaccine. “I fear that this will cause millions of people to choose not to get vaccinated,” he said.

Gregory Pollan, a virologist and director of vaccine research at the Mayo Clinic in the US, said it was “overreaction” that the UK did not recommend the COVID-19 vaccine to people with food allergies. Pollan advises U.S. medical and health regulators.


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